Dated over 2,000 years old, this skull is an extreme example of binding and elongation. Cranial binding is the shaping of the skull when a child is very young, usually an infant. This wrapping is often done with rope or cloth by itself or against a wooden board. This results in the misshaping, flattening (see our cradle-board skull, BC-222) or, in this case, elongation. This wrapping or binding, is thought to be the oldest form of body modification, dating back 9,000 years. This particular skull is from Peru, but this practice has occurred in other regions as well.